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[豆知识] 【整理】2009-05-10&-5-16 因特网的发展历史 (1/2)

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Homework
The internet, in the year 2009, we send e-mails, make calls over the interenet and discuss topics we take interested in. Even our banking is going vritual. But what we take for granted today, were only a X idea 50 years ago. In order to understand how we got this far, let’s go back to 1957 when everything began.
Before 1957, computers only worked on one task a time. This called bach processing. Of course, this was quite in a factive. With computers getting bigger and bigger, they have to restore in special cold rooms. But, then the development couldn’t directly work on the computers anymore. Specialists have to be called in to help them. Programing at time working into a lot of menu work and the indirection to the computers let to a lot of bugs, wasting time and fraying the developer’s nerves.
The year 1957 worked a big change, a remote work could work directly on the computers. At the same time, the idea of time sharing came up. This is the first concept in computer technology to share the process part of one computer with mutiple users.
On October the 4th in the 1957, during the cold war, the first unmanned submit was send to the submite union. The fare of X get emerged. In order to secure America’s leading technology, the US found the defend advance to research in Feb. 1958. At that time, knowledge was only transferred by people. The  planned a large stile to computer work, in order to  knowledge transfer and  doubling already    reserch. This internet work would become the X. Furthermore, three other concepts were to be developed, which are foundamental for the history of the internet. The concept to the military net work by the rand corporation in America, the commercial network to the  in England, and the scientific network  in France. The scientific and the commercial network are the foundamental of the morden network.
Let’s begin with the , almost familiar of these networks. Its development began in 1966. Universities were generally quite  to put in front of the mainframe. This computer X control of the internet. At the same time, the  also served the  for the mainframe. Since only the X in a network, this was also called X subnet.
HW
The Internet, in the year 2009: we send emails, make cools calls over the Internet, and discuss topics we take an interest in. Even out our banking is going virtual. But what we take for granted today was only a wild vague idea 50 years ago. In order to understand how we got this far, let's go back to 1957 when everything began. Before 1957, computers only worked on one task at a time. This is called "back batch processing". Of course, this was quite ineffective. With computers getting bigger and bigger, they had to be stored in special cooled rooms. But then the developers couldn't work directly on the computers anymore. Speacially Specialists had to be cool called in to connect them. Programming at that time in meant a lot of manual work and the indirect connection to the computers led to a lot of bugs, wasting time and framing fraying the developers' inurese nerves. The year 1957 marked a big change: a remote connection had to be instored installed, so that the developers could work directly on the computers. At the same time, the idea of time-sharing came up. This is the first concept in computer technology to share the processing power of one computer with multiple users. On October the 4th in 1957 during the Cold War, the first unmanned settlelize satellite Sputnik 1 was sent into orbit by the Soviet Union. The affair of a mersaw got amerch The fear of a missile gap emerged. In order to secure America's legend lead in technology, the US founded the Defense van Advanced Research Project tion Agency in February, 1958. At that time, knowledge was only transferred by people. The DARPA planned a lot skill large-scale computer network in order to excelerate accelerate knowledge transfer and avoid the dubbing doublingup of already existing research. This network would become the apernet ARPANET. Furthermore, three other concepts were to be developed, which are fundamental for the history of the Internet: the concept of a military network by the rank RAND Corporation in America, the commershow commercial network of the National Physical lebratree Laboratory in England, and the scientific network saterize CYCLADES in France. The scientific, military and commershow commercial approaches of these concepts are the foundations for our modern Internet. Let's begin with the apernet ARPANET, the most familiar of these networks.Its development began in 1966. Universities were generally quite cautious about sharing their computers; therefore, small computers were put in front of the mainframe. This computer, the Interface Message Processor, took over control of the network activities, while the mainframe was only in charge of the initialization of programs and data files. At the same time, the IMP also served as interface for the mainframe. Since only the IMPs were interconnected in a network, this was also called IMP Subnet.
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