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[科学美国人60秒] 【整理】SSS 2008-10-07

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[科学美国人60秒] 【整理】SSS 2008-10-07

SSS 2008-10-07

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Tune in every weekday for quick reports and commentaries on the world of science-- it'll just take a minute.


Japan's Makato Kobayashi and Toshihide Maskawa share the Nobel Prize with American Yoichiro Nambu for work related to a fundamental description of nature at the subatomic particle level through what is known as broken symmetries. Steve Mirsky reports



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【整理】SSS 2008-10-07【整理人】ivyxk

 

Transcript

 

This is Scientific American's 60-Second Science. I'm Steve Mirsky . Got a minute ?

 

The 2008 Nobel Prize in physics goes to an American and two Japanese scientists for work related to symmetry in particle physics.

In the early 1960s, Yoichiro Nambu of the Enrico Fermi Institute in Chicago developed a mathematical description of what is known as spontaneous broken symmetry related to subatomic particles. The breaking of symmetry scrambles the underlying order of nature. Nambu’s work was instrumental in some unscrambling, namely the later unification of three of the four basic forces—the weak force, strong force and electromagnetism.

The other laureates are Makato Kobayashi of the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization in Tsukuba, Japan, and Toshihide Maskawa of the Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics in Kyoto. They discovered different broken symmetries in the early 1970s, which predicted the existence of three kinds of quarks, which were later discovered. Their kind of broken symmetry is at the heart of the big bang. Full symmetry would have snuffed the Big Bang, but a tiny deviation of an extra matter particle for every 10 billion matter-antimatter particle pairs is apparently what allowed the universe to come into existence.

 

Thanks for the minute for Scientific American's 60-Second Science. I'm Steve Mirsky .

 

[ 本帖最后由 ivyxk 于 2008-10-13 12:32 编辑 ]

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Homework

This is Scientific American's 60-Second-Science. I'm Steve Mirsky. Got a minute?

 

The 2008 Nobel Prize in physics goes to an American and two Japanese scientists for work related to symmetry in particle physics. In early 1960's Yoichiro Nambu of the enrigo from the institute in Chicago developed a mathematical description would as known as mountainous broken symmetry related to subatomic particles. The breaking of symmetry scrambles the underline the order of nature, Nambu's work with instrumentaling among scrambling namely the later unifications of three of the four basic forces the weak force, strong force and electro magnetism.

 

The other was as Makato Kobayashi of the high energy accelerates research organization is * Japan. And Toshihide Maskawa of the Ucal institute for thermal radical physics in Kyoto. They discovered different broken symmetries in the early 1970's which predicted the existences of three kinds of quarks which were later discovered. There are broken symmetries at the heart of the big band. Full symmetry would snuff the big band, but a tiny deviation of a textual matter particle for every 10 billion matter antimatter particle pairs is apparently would allow the universe to come into existence.

 

Thanks for the minute for Scientific American's 60-Second-Science. I'm Steve Mirsky.

1

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  • ivyxk

韦氏字典是无敌的^o^
铲除一切猴面包树……
Everything is about attitude “)
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相关背景知识

瑞典皇家科学院2008年10月7日宣布,将2008年度诺贝尔物理学奖授予南部阳一郎、小林诚和益川敏英三人。

 

南部阳一郎因在理论上阐明了“自发对称性破缺机制”等而得奖。小林和益川因在理论上阐明了“CP(电荷与宇称)对称性破缺”的“小林·益川理论”而得奖,两者都是基本粒子物理学的基础理论。


“小林·益川理论”是1973年提出来的有关物质起源的理论,提出了质子和中子是有三代6种夸克构成的,否定了在此之前一直认为的是3种夸克的学说。

 

小林和益川提出这一理论的时候还只发现了三种夸克,之后到1994年其余的三种夸克相继被发现,从而验证了“小林·益川理论”的正确性.

 

 

我还在,你们在哪里?北星。翩然。芊芊。叶叶。。。。
实现无障碍英语沟通

什么是“对称性破缺”

对称性破缺是量子场论的重要概念,对探索宇宙的本原有重要意义。它包含“自发对称性破缺”和“动力学对称性破缺”两种情形。

 

  根据已知理论,大约137亿年前,宇宙在一次“大爆炸”中诞生。之后,夸克、电子等粒子和同样数量质量但电荷相反的反粒子构成了物质。粒子和反粒子一旦碰撞,将“同归于

 

尽”。因此,如果两者始终并存,宇宙中的物质最终将消失殆尽,但是,现在的宇宙中只有粒子“幸存”,没有发现反粒子。科学家认为,反粒子幸存率不如粒子,是因为除电荷相反外,

 

还存在其他微小差异,这种粒子和反粒子的性质差异被称为“对称性破缺”,它的机制是亚原子物理学的一大谜团。

 

Symmetry and Symmetry Breaking

 

对称性 和 对称破缺

我还在,你们在哪里?北星。翩然。芊芊。叶叶。。。。
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homework

 

The 2008 Nobel Prize in physics goes to an American and two Japanese scientists for work related to symmetry in particle physics. In the early 1960's Yoichiro Nambu of the Enrico Fermi institute in Chicago developed a mathematical description would as known as spontaneous broken symmetry related to subatomic particles. The breaking of symmetry scrambles the underling order of nature, Nambu's work with instrumental some – scrambling, namely the later unification of three of the four basic forces: the weak force, strong force and electro magnetism.

 

The other laureates was Makato Kobayashi of the high energy accelerates research organization is Tsukuba, Japan. And Toshihide Maskawa of the Yukawa institute for ---l physics in Kyoto. They discovered different broken symmetries in the early 1970's ,which predicted the existence of three kinds of quarks, which were later discovered. Their kind of broken symmetry is at the heart of the big bang. Full symmetry would snuffed the big bang, but the tiny deviation of the extual matter particle for every 10 billion matter antimatter particle pairs is apparently what allow the universe to come into existence.

 

 

1

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  • ivyxk

home work

home work This is Scientific American's 60s Science. I am Steve Mirsky, got a minute? The 2008 Nobel Prize Physics goes two Americans and two Japanese scientists for work related to symmetry impatical physics. In the early 1960s, / Numbu in the irrigo from the institute of Chicago developed mathmatical descriptions would known as mountainous broken symmetry related to subatomic particles, breaking of symmetry scramble the other line order of nature. Numbu's work with instruments among scrambling namely the unification of three or four basic forces: the weak force, the strong force and electronic magnetism. The other lawyers of / / of the high energy accelerate the research of orgnization which is in Cuba, Japan, and / / of the Ukal Institute for the theoritical physics in Kioto(京都). They discovered different broken symmety in the early 1970s which predicted the exist of 3 kinds of quarks which were later discovered. Their kind of work symmstries at the heart of the big band. 4 symmetries were not enough the big band, but tiny deviation of a textual matter particle for the 10 billion matter particle players is apparantly a universe to come to existence. Thanks for minute for Scientific American's 60s science. I am Steve Mirsky.
1

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  • ivyxk

HW

     This is Scientific American's 60-Second-Science. I'm Steve Mirsky. Got a minute?

     The 2008 Nobel Prize in physics goes to an American and two Japanese scientists for work ralated to symetry and particle physics.

     In the early 1960s, Yoichiro Nambu of Enrico Fermi institute in Chicago developed a mathematical description of what is known as spontaneous broken symetry related to subatomic particles.The breaking of symetry scrambles the underlying order of nature.Nambu has worked with instrumental scrambling, namely the later unification of three of the four basic forces, the weak force,strong force,and electromagnetism.

     The other laureates is Makato Kobayashi of High energy accelerator research organizaiton in Tsukuba Japan and Toshihide Maskawa of the Yukawa institute for theoretical physics in kyoto.They discovered different broken symetries in the early 1970s, which predicted the existence of three kind of quarks which were later discovered.Their kind of broken symetry is at the heart of the big bang.Full symetry would snuff the big bang, but tiny deviation of a next dramatic particle for every ten billon matter and anti-matter particle pairs is apparently would allow the universe to come into existence.

      Thanks for the minute for Scientific American's 60-Second-Science. I'm Steve Mirsky.

[ 本帖最后由 love23 于 2008-10-8 13:23 编辑 ]
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  • ivyxk

实现无障碍英语沟通

homework

This is Scientific American's 60-Second-Science. I'm Steve Mirsky. Got a minute?

 

The 2008 Nobel Prize in physics goes to an American and two Japanese scientists for work related to symmetry in particle physics.

In the early 1960s, Yoichiro Nambu of
the Enrico Fermi Institute in Chicago developed a mathematical description of what is known as spontaneous broken symmetry related to subatomic particles. The breaking of symmetry scrambles the underlying order of nature. Nambu’s work was instrumental in some unscrambling namely the later unification of three of the four basic forces -- the weak force, strong force and electromagnetism.

The other laureates are Makato Kobayashi of the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization in
Tsukuba, Japan, and Toshihide Maskawa of the Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics in Kyoto.

 

They discovered different broken symmetries in the early 1970s, which predicted the existence of three kinds of quarks, which were later discovered. Their kind of broken symmetry is at the heart of the big bang. Full symmetry would have snuffed the big bang, but a tiny deviation of an extra matter particle for every ten billion matter-antimatter particle pairs is apparently what allowed the universe to come into existence.

 

Thanks for the minute for Scientific American's 60-Second-Science. I'm Steve Mirsky.

 

spontaneous broken symmetry  自发对称性破缺

subatomic particle  亚原子微粒;次原子粒子

electromagnetism  n. 电磁,电磁学

Tsukuba  地名,日本筑波

Yukawa汤川秀树(Hideki,1907-,日本物理学家,曾获1949年诺贝尔物理学奖)

quark  n. 夸克(理论上设想的三种不带整电荷的更基本的粒子通称)

the Enrico Fermi Institute 恩里科. 费米研究所

我还在,你们在哪里?北星。翩然。芊芊。叶叶。。。。
普特听力大课堂

on griselda

This is Scientific American's 60-Second-Science. I'm Steve Mirsky. Got a minute?

 

The 2008 Nobel Prize in physics goes to an American and two Japanese scientists for work related to symmetry in particle physics.

In
the early 1960s, Yoichiro Nambu of the Enrico Fermi Institute in Chicago developed a mathematical description of what is known as spontaneous broken symmetry related to subatomic particles. The breaking of symmetry scrambles the underlying order of nature. Nambu’s work was instrumental in some unscrambling namely the later unification of three of the four basic forces -- the weak force, strong force and electromagnetism. The other laureates are Makato Kobayashi of the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization in Tsukuba, Japan, and Toshihide Maskawa of the Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics in Kyoto.

 

 

They discovered different broken symmetries in the early 1970s, which predicted the existence of three kinds of quarks, which were later discovered. Their kind of broken symmetry is at the heart of the big bang. Full symmetry would have snuffed the big bang, but a tiny deviation of an extra matter particle for every ten billion matter-antimatter particle pairs is apparently what allowed the universe to come into existence.

 

Thanks for the minute for Scientific American's 60-Second-Science. I'm Steve Mirsky.

 

 

我还在,你们在哪里?北星。翩然。芊芊。叶叶。。。。
好栏目推荐之美国口语俚语

(homework中都应该使用黑色字体哦------ivyxk)

HW

 

This is Scientific American's 60-Second-Science. I'm Steve Mirsky. Got a minute?

 

The 2008 Nobel Prize in physics goes to an American and two Japanese scientists for work related to symmetry in particle physics. In the early 1960's Yoichiro Nambu of the Enrico Fermi / institute in Chicago developed a mathematical description award as known as spontaneous broken symmetry related to subatomic particles. The breaking of symmetry scrambles the underline the order of nature, Nambu's work with instrumentaling among scrambling namely the later unifications of three of the four basic forces the weak force, strong force and electro magnetism.

 

The other laureate's / Makato Kobayashi of the high energy accelerates research organization is Tsukuba, Japan. And Toshihide Maskawa of the Ucal institute for theoretical physics in Kyoto. They discovered different broken symmetries in the early 1970s which predicted the existences of three kinds of quarks which were later discovered. There are kind of broken symmetries at the heart of the big band. Full symmetry would've snuffed the big bang, but a tiny deviation of an extra matter particle for every 10 billion matter antimatter particle pairs is apparently would allow the universe to come into existence.

 

Thanks for the minute for Scientific American's 60-Second-Science. I'm Steve Mirsky.

[ 本帖最后由 ivyxk 于 2008-10-13 12:27 编辑 ]
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  • ivyxk

One without faith is sure to fail 新浪微薄:福威武威

HW(坚持就是胜利,加油哦--------ivyxk)

this is science of the America's sixty seconds science,i'm Stive Meriske.got a minute? the two thousand and eight Nobel Prize in physics goes to an American and two Japanese scientists for work related to symmetry and . .physics.in early ninteen sixty 's Yo.ch Number of the .. from the institute in chicago developed a mathmatical description would as known as ..symmetry related to subatom particles .the breaking of symmetry s. the ...under line order of nature , number's work with it's instru.. among scraming namely the later unifaction of the three of the four basic forces the weak force ,strong force and ele// 实在是做不下去了 太多生词了 [ 本帖最后由 ivyxk 于 2008-10-13 12:29 编辑 ]
1

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  • ivyxk

10-7 Homework

 

This is Scientific American’s 60 second science, I’m Steve Mirsky, got a minute?

 

The 2008 Nobel Prize of physics goes to an American and two Japanese scientists for work related to symmetry in particle physics. In the early 1960’s, Yoichiro Nambu from the Enrico Fermi Institute in Chicago developed a mathematics description of what is known as spontaneous broken symmetry related to subatomic particles. The breaking of symmetry scrambles the underlined order of nature. Nambu’s work with instrumentaling * * scrambling, namely, the later unification of 3 of the 4 basic forces: the week force, strong force and electromagnetism.

 

The other laureates are Makato Kobayashi of the High energy accelerate research organization in Kuba, Japan and and Toshihide Maskawa of the Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics in Kyoto.

 They discovered different broken symmetries in the early 1970s which predict the exsitence of 3 kinds of  quarks which were later discovered. Their kind of broken symmetry is the heart of the big bang. Full symmetry would have snuffed the big bang, but a tiny deviation of an extra matter particle for every ten billion matter-antimatter particle pairs is apparently would allow the universe to come into existence.

 

Thanks for the minute for Scientific American's 60-Second-Science. I'm Steve Mirsky.
1

评分次数

  • ivyxk

每天半小时 轻松提高英语口语

Homework (忘记写homework咯,而且都应用黑色字体哦----ivyxk)

This is Scientific American's 60-Second-Science. I'm Steve Mirsky. Got a minute?

 

The 2008 Nobel Prize in physics goes to an American and two Japanese scientists for work related to symmetry in particle physics. In early 1960's Yoichiro Nambu of the Enrico Fermi Institute in Chicago developed a mathematical description of what is known as spontaneous broken symmetry related to subatomic particles. The breaking of symmetry scrambles the underline order of nature, Nambu is work with instrumental in some unscrambling, namely the later unifications of three of the four basic forces--the weak force, strong force and electro magnetism.

 

The other laureates are Makato Kobayashi of the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Japan. And Toshihide Maskawa of Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics in Kyoto. They discovered different broken symmetries in the early 1970's which predicted the existence of three kinds of quarks which were later discovered. There are kind of broken symmetries at the heart of the big bang. Full symmetry would have snuffed the big bang, but a tiny deviation of an extra matter particle for every 10 billion matter anti-matter particle pairs is apparently would allow the universe to come into existence.

 

Thanks for the minute for Scientific American's 60-Second-Science. I'm Steve Mirsky.

[ 本帖最后由 ivyxk 于 2008-10-13 12:30 编辑 ]
1

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  • ivyxk

My homework

This is Scientific American's 60-Second Science.I'm Steve Mirsky.Got a minute?

 

The 2008 Nobel Prize in Physics goes to an American and two Japanese Scientists for work related to symmetry in particle physics.

 

In the early 1960s,Yoichiro Nambu of the Enrico Fermi Institute in Chicago developed mathematical description of what is known as spontaneous broken symmetry related to subatomic particles.The breaking of symmetry scrambles the underlying order of the nature.Nambu's work was instrumental in some unscramblling, namely the later unification of three of four basic forces: the weak force,strong force and electromagnetism.

 

The other laureates are Makato Kobayashi of the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization in Tsukuba,Japan and Toshihide Maskawa of the Yukawa Institute for Theoretical physics in Kyoto.They discovered different broken symmetries in the early 1970s which predicted the existence of three kinds of quarts which were later discovered. Their kind of broken symmetries is at the heart of the big bang.Full symmetry would have snuffed the big bang.But a tiny deviation of an extra matter particle for every ten billion matter-antimatter particle pair is apparently what allowed the universe to come into existence.

 

Thanks for the minute for Scientific American's 60-Second Science.I'm Steve Mirsky.

1

评分次数

  • ivyxk

口译专员推荐—>口译训练软件IPTAM口译通

on 整理

The 2008 Nobel Prize in physics goes to an American and two Japanese scientists for work related to symmetry in particle physics.

 

所有的桐子都有的。。。不知道版主大人为撒子没有写呢。。。^_^

 

 

 

[ 本帖最后由 ivyxk 于 2008-10-13 12:33 编辑 ]
我还在,你们在哪里?北星。翩然。芊芊。叶叶。。。。
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