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[word-lover] Words and Their Stories 2009-02-22

提高英语听力能力 找对方法很重要!
——————有一个句子的语法我不太知道: Some writers believe that the phrase would soon have disappeared were it not for the American Civil War. ——————整句话的意思是:一些作家认为,这个短语可能早就已经消失了,如果它不是跟美国内战有关的话。 整个句子的主语谓语部分Some writers believe很简单,复杂的是that引导的宾语从句 the phrase would soon have disappeared were it not for the American Civil War. 这个从句是个完整的句子,用的是虚拟语气,the phrase would soon have disappeared是主语和谓语,were it not for the American Civil War是状语,表示一种虚拟的状态。这个状语用了倒装形式,其中的谓语were前置了。整个宾语从句可以改成if引导的正常语序的复合句:the phrase would soon have disappeared,if it were not for the American Civil War. 值得注意的是,在虚拟语气中,如果if引导的从句中的谓语是be动词,那么一定要用were,不论主语是单数还是复数。当谓语动词是be动词是,从句可以倒装,be动词前置,如例句。另外要注意的是,虚拟语气中if引导的从句一定要用过去时。 虚拟语气有下面几种时态: 对过去发生的事情的假设: 如例句 The phrase would soon have disappeared were it not for the American Civil War. 再如:He would have done his homework, if he did't go out playing.(这里的从句谓语不是be动词,所以不能倒装。) I would do it, if I could. 注意主句用完成时表示事情是否发生,用一般过去时表示事情是否要发生(站在过去时间的立场上)。 对现在状态的假设: The skert would look better were it pink.(OR The skert would look better, if it were pink.) 对将来的假设: The mankind would be distinct, were there a big comet hitting the earth. 注意这种情况跟一般条件状语从句的区别。下面的句子是将来时一般语气的条件状语从句: We will cancel the meeting should it rain. (OR We will cancel the meeting, if it should rain. OR We will cancel the meeting, if it rains.) 这里用should表示对将来的假设,should可以前置。 上句不是虚拟语气,只是对将来的一种假设。虚拟语气强调“虚拟”二字,即非现实发生的,当用在将来时态中时,强调的是不太可能发生的事情。而一般条件状语从句只是根据情况来决定要发生的事情。 不知道我说得清楚不?还有没什么问题?
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