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[豆知识] 【整理】2009-05-10&-5-16 因特网的发展历史 (1/2)

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[豆知识] 【整理】2009-05-10&-5-16 因特网的发展历史 (1/2)

本帖最后由 Mickey_lee 于 2009-5-16 16:52 编辑



  Bits-of-Knowledge-2009-05-10&05-16


  History of the Internet


Nowadays, many of us find that we can’t leave the Internet in our daily life. But, do you know how the Internet develops? Today’s Bits-of-Knowledge will give you an eye-opening explaining of the invention and development of the Internet.





 

 

电信1:   (MP3) (rm)

电信2:   (MP3) (rm)

网通1:   (MP3) (rm)


smile.gif 版主提示:


一、若是自己的听写稿且非头贴, 请发帖时标注"Homework".

二、若是改稿, 请发帖时标注"on 某某人"并在修改处标红.


三、发帖请用Verdana 3号字体.


四、若在听写和理解过程中遇到困难,请到Special版Q&A提问。

 

 

 

 

Transcript:

 

The Internet, in the year 2009: we send emails, make calls over the Internet, and discuss topics we take an interest in. Even our banking is going virtual. But what we take for granted today was only a vague idea 50 years ago. In order to understand how we got this far, let's go back to 1957 when everything began.

 

Before 1957, computers only worked on one task at a time. This is called "batch processing". Of course, this was quite ineffective. With computers getting bigger and bigger, they had to be stored in special cooled rooms. But then the developers couldn't work directly on the computers anymore. Specialists had to be called in to connect them. Programming at that time meant a lot of manual work and the indirect connection to the computers led to a lot of bugs, wasting time and fraying the developers' nerves.

 

The year 1957 marked a big change: a remote connection had to be installed, so that the developers could work directly on the computers. At the same time, the idea of time-sharing came up. This is the first concept in computer technology to share the processing power of one computer with multiple users.

 

On October the 4th in 1957 during the Cold War, the first unmanned satellite Sputnik 1 was sent into orbit by the Soviet Union. The fear of a missile gap emerged. In order to secure America's lead in technology, the US founded the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency in February, 1958. At that time, knowledge was only transferred by people. The DARPA planned a large-scale computer network in order to accelerate knowledge transfer and avoid the doubling up of already existing research. This network would become the ARPANET.

 

Furthermore, three other concepts were to be developed, which are fundamental for the history of the Internet: the concept of a military network by the RAND Corporation in America, the commercial network of the National Physical Laboratory in England, and the scientific network CYCLADES in France. The scientific, military and commercial approaches of these concepts are the foundations for our modern Internet.

 

Let's begin with the ARPANET, the most familiar of these networks.

 

Its development began in 1966. Universities were generally quite cautious about sharing their computers; therefore, small computers were put in front of the mainframe. This computer, the Interface Message Processor, took over control of the network activities, while the mainframe was only in charge of the initialization of programs and data files. At the same time, the IMP also served as interface for the mainframe. Since only the IMPs were interconnected in a network, this was also called IMP Subnet.

 

 

 

Glossary:

 

1. batch-processing:  【电脑】整批处理

 

2. time-sharing:  【电脑】分时(一中央处理系统同时为数个使用者服务的安排)

 

3. missile gap:  .

此一词组创于一九六年美国总统大选期间,用来表示美、苏两国火箭武器力量的均势已被打破,苏联已开始占优。故此,missile gap可译为导弹力量差距

 

4. Defense Advanced Research Project Agency  【电脑】美国国防部高等研究计划局

 

5. ARPANET

=Advanced Research Project Agency Network 【电脑】阿帕网络(美国官方的电脑网络,Internet的前身)

 

6. Interface Message Processor  接口信息处理机

 

 

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hw

好久没听写过了,抢个头帖 =)

The internet, in the year 2009, we send emails, make calls over the internet, and discuss topics we take an interest in, even our banking is going virtual. But what we take for granted today was only a vague idea 50 years ago. In order to understand how we got this far, let’s go back to 1957 when everything began.



Before 1957, computers only worked on one task at a time, this is called batch processing. Of course, this was quite ineffective. With computers getting bigger and bigger, they had to be stalled in special cooled rooms. The ban the developers couldn’t work directly on the computers anymore. Specialists had to be called in to connect them. Programming at that time meant a lot of manual work and the indirect connection to the computers led to a lot of bugs, wasting time and framed the developers’ nerves.



The year 1957 marked a big change, a remote connection had to be installed, so that the developers could work directly on the computers. At the same time, the idea of time-sharing came up. This is the first concept in computer technology to share the processing power of one computer with multiple users.



On October the 4th in 1957 during the cold war, the first unmanned satellite Sputnik 1 was sent into orbit by the Soviet Union, the fare of a missile-gap emerged. In order to secure America’s lead in technology, the US founded the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency in February, 1958. At that time, knowledge was only transferred by people. The d* planned a large scale computer network in order to accelerate knowledge transfer and avoid the doubling up of already existing research. This network would become the ARPANET.



Furthermore, three other concepts would to be developed which are fundamental for the history of the internet. The concept of a military network by the RAND corporation in America, the commercial network of the National Physical Laboratory in England, and the scientific network CYCLADES in France. The scientific military and commercial approaches of these concepts are the foundations for our modern internet. Let’s begin with the ARPANET, the most familiar of these networks.



Its development began in 1966, universities were generally quite cautious about sharing their computers, therefore, small computers will put in the front of the mainframe. This computer, the Interface Message Processor took over control of the network activities, while the mainframe was only in charge of the initialization of programs and data files. At the same time, the IMP also served as interface for the mainframe. Since only the IMPs were into connected in a network, this was also called IMP Subnet.

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hw

The Internet in the year 2009, we send e-mails, make calls over the Internet and discuss topics we take interested in, even our banking is going virtual, but what we take for granted today was only a vain idea 50 years ago. In order to understand how we got this far, let’s go back to 1957 when everything began.

Before 1957, computers only worked on one-task a time, this is called batch processing. Of course, this was quite ineffective. With computers getting bigger and bigger, they have to be stored in special cool rooms, but then the developers couldn’t work directly on the computers any more, specialists had to be called in to connect them, programming at that time and a lot of manual work and indirect connections to the computers let to a lot of bugs, wasting time and frame the developers’ nerves.

Began in 1957 marked a big change, a remote connection had to be installed, so that the developers could work directly on the computers; at the same time, the idea of time-sharing came up, this is the first concept in computer technology to share the process power of one computer with multiple uses.

On October the fourth in 1957 during the Cold War, the first unmanned satellites Sputnik 1 were sent into the orbit by the Soviet Union. The faire of the missile got emerged, in order to secure America’s leading technology, the US found the Defensive Advanced Research Project Agency in February 1958. At that time, knowledge was only transformed by people. The DARPA planned a large scale computer network in order to accelerate knowledge transform and avoid the doubling up the already existing research. This network would become the ARPANET, further more three other concepts were to be developed which are fundamental for the history of the Internet.

The concept to the military network by the RAND Corporation in American, the commercial network of National Physical Laboratory in England and the scientific network CYCLADES in France. The scientific, military and commercial approaches of these concepts are the foundations for our modern Internet.

Let’s begin with the ARPANET, the most familiar of these networks. It’s development began in the 1966, universities were generally quite cautious about sharing their computers, therefore small computers were put in front of the mainframe. This computer the Interface Message Processor took over control of the network activities while the mainframe was only in charge of the initialization of the programes and data files. At the same time, the IMP also serve as Interface for the mainframe, since only the IMP in the connected in the network, this was also called IMP subnet.
天行健,君子以自强不息;地势坤,君子以厚德载物。
实现无障碍英语沟通
on 芊芊

The Internet, in the year 2009: we send emails, make calls over the Internet, and discuss topics we take an interest in, even our banking is going virtual. But what we take for granted today was only a vague idea 50 years ago. In order to understand how we got this far, let's go back to 1957 when everything began.

Before 1957, computers only worked on one task at a time, this is called batch processing. Of course, this was quite ineffective. With computers getting bigger and bigger, they had to be stored in special cooled rooms. But then the developers couldn't work directly on the computers anymore. Specialists had to be called in to connect them. Programming at that time meant a lot of manual work and the indirect connection to the computers led to a lot of bugs, wasting time and fraying the developers' nerves.

The year 1957 marked a big change: a remote connection had to be installed, so that the developers could work directly on the computers. At the same time, the idea of time-sharing came up. This is the first concept in computer technology to share the processing power of one computer with multiple users.

On October the 4th in 1957 during the cold war, the first unmanned satellite Sputnik 1 was sent into orbit by the Soviet Union. The fear of a missile gap emerged. In order to secure America's lead in technology, the US founded the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency in February, 1958. At that time, knowledge was only transferred by people. The DARPA planned a large-scale computer network in order to accelerate knowledge transfer and avoid the doubling up of already existing research. This network would become the ARPANET.

Furthermore, three other concepts were to be developed which are fundamental for the history of the Internet. The concept of a military network by the RAND Corporation in America, the commercial network of the National Physical Laboratory in England, and the scientific network CYCLADES in France. The scientific, military and commercial approaches of these concepts are the foundations for our modern Internet. Let's begin with the ARPANET, the most familiar of these networks.

Its development began in 1966, universities were generally quite cautious about sharing their computers, therefore, small computers were put in the front of the mainframe. This computer, the Interface Message Processor, took over control of the network activities, while the mainframe was only in charge of the initialization of programs and data files. At the same time, the IMP also served as interface for the mainframe. Since only the IMPs were interconnected in a network, this was also called IMP Subnet.
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  • jessiyear

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HW

The internet, in the year 2009, we send emails, make calls over the internet, and discuss topics we take an interest in, even our banking is going virtual. But what we take for granted today was only a vague idea 50 years ago. In order to understand how we got this far, let’s go back to 1957 when everything began.



Before 1957, computers only worked on one task at a time, this is called batch processing. Of course, this was quite ineffective. With computers getting bigger and bigger, they had to be stalled in special cooled rooms. The ban the developers couldn’t work directly on the computers anymore. Specialists had to be called in to connect them. Programming at that time meant a lot of manual work and the indirect connection to the computers led to a lot of bugs, wasting time and framed the developers’ nerves.



The year 1957 marked a big change, a remote connection had to be installed, so that the developers could work directly on the computers. At the same time, the idea of time-sharing came up. This is the first concept in computer technology to share the processing power of one computer with multiple users.



On October the 4th in 1957 during the cold war, the first unmanned satellite Sputnik 1 was sent into orbit by the Soviet Union, the fare of a missile gap emerged. In order to secure America’s lead in technology, the US founded the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency in February, 1958. At that time, knowledge was only transferred by people. The DARPA planned a large scale computer network in order to accelerate knowledge transfer and avoid the doubling up of already existing research. This network would become the ARPANET.



Furthermore, three other concepts would to be developed which are fundamental for the history of the internet. The concept of a military network by the RAND corporation in America, the commercial network of the National Physical Laboratory in England, and the scientific network CYCLADES in France. The scientific, military and commercial approaches of these concepts are the foundations for our modern internet. Let’s begin with the ARPANET, the most familiar of these networks.



Its development began in 1966, universities were generally quite cautious about sharing their computers, therefore, small computers will put in the front of the mainframe. This computer, the Interface Message Processor took over control of the network activities, while the mainframe was only in charge of the initialization of programs and data files. At the same time, the IMP also served as interface for the mainframe. Since only the IMPs were into connected in a network, this was also called IMP Subnet.

1

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  • jessiyear

多聽,多讀,做好自己應該做噶事~!~!

on ktdid~~~

... ...

On October the 4th in 1957 during the Cold War, the first unmanned satellite Sputnik 1 was sent into orbit by the Soviet Union. ...

... ...

ps.
The Cold War: the continuing state of conflict, tension and competition that existed primarily between the United States and the Soviet Union and those countries' respective allies from the mid-1940s to the early 1990s. Throughout this period, the conflict was expressed through military coalitions, espionage, weapons development, invasions, propaganda, and competitive technological development, which included the space race. The conflict included costly defense spending, a massive conventional and nuclear arms race, and numerous proxy wars; the two superpowers never fought one another directly. (冷战)

天行健,君子以自强不息;地势坤,君子以厚德载物。
The internet, in the year 2009, we send emails, make calls over the internet, and discuss topics we take an interest in, even our banking is going virtual. But what we take for granted today was only a vague idea 50 years ago. In order to understand how we got this far, let’s go back to 1957 when everything began.







Before 1957, computers only worked on one task at a time, this is called batch processing. Of course, this was quite ineffective. With computers getting bigger and bigger, they had to be stalled in special cooled rooms. The ban the developers couldn’t work directly on the computers anymore. Specialists had to be called in to connect them. Programming at that time meant a lot of manual work and the indirect connection to the computers led to a lot of bugs, wasting time and framed the developers’ nerves.







The year 1957 marked a big change, a remote connection had to be installed, so that the developers could work directly on the computers. At the same time, the idea of time-sharing came up. This is the first concept in computer technology to share the processing power of one computer with multiple users.







On October the 4th in 1957 during the cold war, the first unmanned satellite Sputnik 1 was sent into orbit by the Soviet Union, the fare of a missile-gap emerged. In order to secure America’s lead in technology, the US founded the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency in February, 1958. At that time, knowledge was only transferred by people. The d* planned a large scale computer network in order to accelerate knowledge transfer and avoid the doubling up of already existing research. This network would become the ARPANET.







Furthermore, three other concepts would to be developed which are fundamental for the history of the internet. The concept of a military network by the RAND corporation in America, the commercial network of the National Physical Laboratory in England, and the scientific network CYCLADES in France. The scientific military and commercial approaches of these concepts are the foundations for our modern internet. Let’s begin with the ARPANET, the most familiar of these networks.







Its development began in 1966, universities were generally quite cautious about sharing their computers, therefore, small computers will put in the front of the mainframe. This computer, the Interface Message Processor took over control of the network activities, while the mainframe was only in charge of the initialization of programs and data files. At the same time, the IMP also served as interface for the mainframe. Since only the IMPs were into connected in a network, this was also called IMP Subnet.
实现无障碍英语沟通
HW

The internet in the year 2009, we send the emails, make calls and discuss topics we take interesting. Even our banking is going virtual, but what we take grounded today was only a way guide idea 50 years ago. In order to understand how be got this far let’s go back turn 1957 when everything began.

Before 1957 computers only were on one the tops of the time, this is called batch processing. Of course this described in affective. With computer is getting bigger and began has its store in special cool rooms. The ban developed could work the directly on computer any more, specially has to cold them to connect them. Program in at that time mean a lot of manual work at the interact connection computer let’s to a lots bars wasting time at afraid developing nurse.

The end in 1957, more of big change, a remove connection had to be stored suit the development could work directly on the computers. At the same time, the idea of time-sharing came off. This is the first concept in computer technology to share the processing power in one computer with a mount of used.
Off two-fourth in 1957, journaling the cold world, the first unman sand line spelled one with sending the obit by the soft union. The fair * got merged. In order to secure Americas leading technology the US found Defense Advanced Research Project Agency in February in 1958. At that time, knowledge was only transferred by people. The doper pen the large scale the computer network in order to separate transfer and involve the dabbling up already existing searches. This network would become the opera net. Third more free other concept to be developed which are found the mental for the history internet. The concept to the military net work by the rand corporation in the America. The commercial network was the National Physical Laboratory in England. And the scientific net work Cyclades in fronts. The scientific, mid tree, and commercial progeny this concept are the foundation for the modern internet.

Let’s begin the Arpanet the most familiar networks. Its development began in 1966. Universities were generally quite cost by sharing net computers that for small computers were coding found the mainframe. This computer the Interface Massage Processor to over control the network activities were the mainframe was only in charged the analyzation programs at date fire. At the same time, the inter also the Interface were the mainframe. Since the only interface in connected the network this is also called IMP subnet.
1

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  • jessiyear

普特听力大课堂
on bill~~

The Internet, in the year 2009: we send emails, make calls over the Internet, and discuss topics we take an interest in. Even our banking is going virtual. But what we take for granted today was only a vague idea 50 years ago. In order to understand how we got this far, let's go back to 1957 when everything began.

Before 1957, computers only worked on one task at a time
. T
his is called batch processing. Of course, this was quite ineffective. With computers getting bigger and bigger, they had to be stored in special cooled rooms. But then the developers couldn't work directly on the computers anymore. Specialists had to be called in to connect them. Programming at that time meant a lot of manual work and the indirect connection to the computers led to a lot of bugs, wasting time and fraying the developers' nerves.

The year 1957 marked a big change: a remote connection had to be installed, so that the developers could work directly on the computers. At the same time, the idea of time-sharing came up. This is the first concept in computer technology to share the processing power of one computer with multiple users.

On October the 4th in 1957 during the Cold War, the first unmanned satellite Sputnik 1 was sent into orbit by the Soviet Union. The fear of a missile gap emerged. In order to secure America's lead in technology, the US founded the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency in February, 1958. At that time, knowledge was only transferred by people. The DARPA planned a large-scale computer network in order to accelerate knowledge transfer and avoid the doubling up of already existing research. This network would become the ARPANET.

Furthermore, three other concepts were to be developed
, which are fundamental for the history of the Internet: the concept of a military network by the RAND Corporation in America, the commercial network of the National Physical Laboratory in England, and the scientific network CYCLADES in France. The scientific, military and commercial approaches of these concepts are the foundations for our modern Internet.


Let's begin with the ARPANET, the most familiar of these networks.

Its development began in 1966
. Universities were generally quite cautious about sharing their computers; therefore, small computers were put in / front of the mainframe. This computer, the Interface Message Processor, took over control of the network activities, while the mainframe was only in charge of the initialization of programs and data files. At the same time, the IMP also served as interface for the mainframe. Since only the IMPs were interconnected in a network, this was also called IMP Subnet.


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Homework

Homework
The Internet, in the year 2009: we send emails, make calls over the Internet, and discuss topics we take an interest in, even our banking is going virtual. But what we take for granted today was only a vague idea 50 years ago. In order to understand how we got this far, let's go back to 1957 when everything began.

Before 1957, computers only worked on one task at a time, this is called batch processing. Of course, this was quite ineffective. With computers getting bigger and bigger, they had to be stored in special cooled rooms. But then the developers couldn't work directly on the computers anymore. Specialists had to be called in to connect them. Programming at that time meant a lot of manual work and the indirect connection to the computers led to a lot of bugs, wasting time and fraying the developers' nerves.

The year 1957 marked a big change: a remote connection had to be installed, so that the developers could work directly on the computers. At the same time, the idea of time-sharing came up. This is the first concept in computer technology to share the processing power of one computer with multiple users.

On October the 4th in 1957 during the cold war, the first unmanned satellite Sputnik 1 was sent into orbit by the Soviet Union. The fear of a missile gap emerged. In order to secure America's lead in technology, the US founded the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency in February, 1958. At that time, knowledge was only transferred by people. The DARPA planned a large-scale computer network in order to accelerate knowledge transfer and avoid the doubling up of already existing research. This network would become the ARPANET.

Furthermore, three other concepts were to be developed which are fundamental for the history of the Internet. The concept of a military network by the RAND Corporation in America, the commercial network of the National Physical Laboratory in England, and the scientific network CYCLADES in France. The scientific, military and commercial approaches of these concepts are the foundations for our modern Internet. Let's begin with the ARPANET, the most familiar of these networks.

Its development began in 1966, universities were generally quite cautious about sharing their computers, therefore, small computers were put in the front of the mainframe. This computer, the Interface Message Processor, took over control of the network activities, while the mainframe was only in charge of the initialization of programs and data files. At the same time, the IMP also served as interface for the mainframe. Since only the IMPs were interconnected in a network, this was also called IMP Subnet.

homework

The internet, in the year 2009, we send emails, make calls over the internet and discuss topics we take interested in, even our banking is going virtual. But what we take for granted today was only a v idea 50 years ago. In order to understand how we got this far, let’s go back to a 1957 when everything began.

Before 1957, computers only worked on one tusk at time, this is called batch processing. Of course, this was quite ineffective. With computers getting bigger and bigger, it had to be stored in special cool rooms. The band developers could work directly on the computer any more, specialist had to be called in to connect them. Programming at that time enter lot of manual work and indirect connections to the computers lead to a lot of burgs, wasting time and fraying the developer’s nerves.

The year of 1957 marks a big change, a remote connection had to be installed so the developers could work directly on the computers. At the same time, the idea of time sharing came out. This is the first concept in computer technology to share the processing power on one computer with multiple users.

On October fourth in 1957, during the cold war, the first unmanned satellites Spinet one was sent into orbit by the Soviet Union. The fare of a …get emerged. In order to secure America’s leading technology, the US found the defense advance reseage project tationcy in February, 1958. at that time, knowledge was only transferred by people. The darper planed a large scale computer network in order to excetary knowledge transfer and avoid the WUP already existing research. This network would become the upper network. Further more, three other concepts would be developed, which are fundamental for the history of internet. The concept to the military network by the round cooperation in the America, the commercial network of the national physical laboratory in England, and the scientific network secludes in France. The scientific, military and commercial approaches this concept other foundations for our modern internet.

Let’s begin with the upper net, the most familiar of this networks, its development begins in 1966. universities were generally quite cautious about sharing their computers, therefore small computers would ..in front of the main frein. This computer, the interface message processor took over control of the internet activities where the mainframe was only in charge of initialization of programs and data files. At the same time the inp also served as interface for the mainframe since only the empst inter connected network, this was also called inpesup net.
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  • jessiyear

New term, new target!  just do it!

ECO论坛,提高英语翻译能力、开拓知识视野的好地方!www.ecocn.org/forum/index.php
本帖最后由 guangxi9313 于 2009-5-10 21:55 编辑

homework
The internet ,in the year 2009, we send e-mails, make calls over the internet, and discuss topics we are interested in ,even our banking is going virtual.But what we take granted today was only a vague idea 50 years ago.In order to understand how we got this far,let's go back to 1957 when every thing began.

Before 1957,computers only worked one task at a time. This is called batch processing.Of course, this was quite ineffective.With computers getting bigger and bigger,they had to be stored in special coolled romes.The bank developers could not work directly on the computers any more, specialists had to be called to connect them.Programing at that time a lot work indirectly connection to the computers led to a lot of bugs,wasting time and frane the developer's nerves.

The year 1957 marked a big change.A remote connection had to be stored. So the developers could work directly on the computers. At the same time,the idea of time-sharing came up.This is the first concept in computer technology to share the processing power of one computer with multiply uesrs.
On October 4th,in 1957, during the cold war, the first unman satellite **was sent to the orbit by the Soviet union.The fear of missing *emerged. In order to secure American's leading technology,the US found the defense advanecd research project agency in Februray,1958.At that time knowledge was only transfered by people.The dorpper planned a large scale computer network in order to e knowledge transfer and are already existing research. This network would come the v-up-net.Furthmore, three other concepts would be developed which are foundamental for the history of the internet.The concept to the millitary network by the end of the cooperation in America,the commercial network of the national physical laboratory in England,and the scientific network cyclades in France. The scientific ,millitary and commercial approach of the concepts are the foundations of our modern Internet.

Let's begin with the Arpanet,the most familiar of these networks. Its development began in 1966.Universitis quite *about sharing their computers. Their small form computers were putting from the mainframe.This computer, the interface message processors took over control of the netwrok activities while the mainframe was only in charge of the programes and the data. At the same time,the* also serve interface for the mainframe,since only the connected in the network. This is also called imp subnet.
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hmwk
The Internet, in the year 2009: we send emails, make calls over the Internet, and discuss topics we take an interest in, even our banking is going virtual. But what we take for granted today was only a vague idea 50 years ago. In order to understand how we got this far, let's go back to 1957 when everything began. Before 1957, computers only worked on one task at a time, this is called * processing. Of course, this was quite ineffective. With computers getting bigger and bigger, they had to be stored in special cooled rooms. But then the developers couldn't work directly on the computers anymore. Specialists had to be called in to connect them. Programming at that time meant a lot of manual work and the indirect connection to the computers led to a lot of bugs, wasting time and fraying the developers' nerves. The year 1957 marked a big change: a remote connection had to be installed, so that the developers could work directly on the computers. At the same time, the idea of time-sharing came up. This is the first concept in computer technology to share the processing power of one computer with multiple users. On October the 4th in 1957 during the cold war, the first unmanned satellite * 1 was sent into orbit by the Soviet Union. The fear of a missile gap emerged. In order to secure America's leading technology, the US founded the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency in February, 1958. At that time, knowledge was only transferred by people. The DARPA(美国国防部高等研究计划局Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency ) planned a large-scale computer network in order to accelerate knowledge transfer and avoid the doubling up of already existing research. This network would become the ARPANET. Furthermore, three other concepts were to be developed which are fundamental for the history of the Internet. The concept to a military network by the RAND Corporation in America, the commercial network of the National Physical Laboratory in England, and the scientific network CYCLADES(一个电源设备的商标) in France. The scientific, military and commercial approaches of these concepts are the foundations for our modern Internet. Let's begin with the ARPANET, the most familiar of these networks. Its development began in 1966, universities were generally quite cautious about sharing their computers, therefore, small computers were put in the front of the mainframe. This computer, the Interface Message Processor, took over control of the network activities, while the mainframe was only in charge of the initialization of programs and data files. At the same time, the IMP also served as interface for the mainframe. Since only the IMPs were interconnected in a network, this was also called IMP ( 接口信息处理机 Interface Message Processor)Subnet.
1

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  • jessiyear

さあ~~頑張ろ!

homework

The internet in the year two thousand nine we send emails, make calls over the internet,and discuss topics we take an interest in.  

[news:/p/00:10.7] Even our banking is going virtual. But what we take for granted today was only a vague idea fifty years ago.
  
[news:/p/00:19.6] In order to understand how we got this far, let's go back to nineteen fifty seven when everything began.

[news:/p/00:27.1] Before nineteen fifty seven computers only worked on one task at a time this is called batch processing.  

[news:/p/00:34.0] Of course this was quite ineffective. With computers getting bigger and bigger they had to be stalled in special cooled rooms.

[news:/p/00:42.5] Then the developers could not work directly on the computers anymore specialists had to be called in to connect them.

[news:/p/00:49.1] Programming at that time meant a lot of manual work and the indirect connection to the computers led to a lot of bugs wasting time and framed the developers nervous.

[news:/p/00:59.9] The year nineteen fifty seven marked a big change. A Remote connection had to be installed so that the developers could work directly on the computers.
  
[news:/p/01:10.7] At the same time the idea of time sharing came up this is the first concept in computer technology to share the processing power of one computer with multiple users.

[news:/p/01:27.1] On Oct the fourth in nineteen fifty seven during the Cold War, the first unmanned satellites Sputnik 1 was sent into orbit by the Soviet Union

[news:/p/01:36.4]  The fare of a missile-gap emerged. In order to secure America's lead in technology the U.S. founded the defense advanced research project agency in February nineteen fifty eight.
  
[news:/p/01:49.2] At that time knowledge was only transferred by people. The ** planned a large scale computer net work in order to accelerate knowledge transfer and avoid the doubling up of ready existing research.
  
[news:/p/02:05.2] This network would become the ARPAnet. Further more three other concepts were to be developed which are fundamental for the history of the internet.
  
[news:/p/02:13.7] The concept to the military network by the RAND cooperation in America.

[news:/p/02:18.2] The commercial network of the national physical Laboratory in England and the Scientific network CYCLADES in France.

[news:/p/02:27.3] The scientific, military and commercial of approaches of these concepts are the foundations for our modern internet.

[news:/p/02:36.6] Let's begin with the ARPAnet the most familiar of these networks its development began in nineteen sixty six.

[news:/p/02:45.5] Universities were generally quite cautious about sharing their computers therefore small computers were put in the front of the main frame.

[news:/p/02:53.6] This computer the interface message processor took over control of the network activities while the main frame was only in charge of the initialization of programs and data files.

[news:/p/03:04.5] At the same time the IMP also served as interface for the main frame since only the IMPs were connected into a network this was called IMP subnet.
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The Internet

In the year 2009, we send emails, make course in the internet and discuss topics we take interesting. even our banking is going in vertual. But what we take for ground today was only a idea fifty years ago. in order to understand how we got this far, let's go back to 1957 when everything began.

Before 1957, computers only worked on one task a time. this is call batch-processing, of course this quiet ineffective. with computer's getting biger and biger, they have to be stalled in special cooled ROMS. But then the developers can work directly on the computers any more. Specialists have to be could to connect them. Programming in that time in lot of mannual work and the indirect connection to the computers let to a lot of bugs wasting time and fright  the developer's nervious.

The year 1957 marked a big change, a remote connection had to be installed, so the developers can work directly on the computers. At the same time, the idea of time-sharing came up. This is the first concept in computer technology to share the processing power of one computer with motobile uses. On Oct. the 4th in 1957 during the cold war, the first un-man statlite spy one was senten to obet by the Sovit Union. The fear of a missile gap urmerged. In order to secure America's leading technology, the US found the Defencing Advanced Research Proagency in Feb 1958.

At that time, knowledge was only transferred by people. The Dalph planned a large scale computer network  in order to excedry knowledge transfer. And avoid the W UP over ready existing research. This network would become the UP NET. Further more, free other concepts will to be developed which are foundelmental for the history of internet. The concept to the military network by the round cooperation in America. The commercial network of the national ficizal REBORTRY in England, and the scientific network see clouded in France, the scientific military and commercial approchase of this concept are the foundation of our modern internet.

Let's begin with the UPNET, the most familiar of this networks, it's development began in 1966, Universities will generally quiet courcials about sharing their computers, there for,  small computers will put into front of the mainframe. This computer the interface message processor took over control of the network activities were the mainframe with only incharge of the initialization of programs and datefiles. At the same time, the ink also served this interface for the mainframe, since only the ink sware in the connected in the network, this was also called inksubnet.
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