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[探索发现] 2016-07-29 BBC:古代圣贤:苏格拉底 Socrates-11

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The destiny of all Greeks was in hands of the gods’. There were venerated even though their personal lives were pretty short on moral guidance. Capricious and vengeful, they fought with each other. They slept with one another’s wives. They abducted mortals. And appropriately, the gods didn’t see they’re interested in human reality either.

“Living a good life didn’t guarantee favor with the gods. Respecting their power and offering the most expensive and bloodiest sacrifice was a much safer bet.”

Greeks did however believe there were five virtues -- justice, temperance, courage, piety and wisdom. But in practice, these virtues were slippery shifting ideals. What was considered just or pious for an aristocratic man was unnecessarily the same for a slave woman.

“In Socrates’ experience, traditional moral thinking, kinds taught by elders, and priests and epic poets just didn’t stand up to scrutiny. His philosophy became a search for more robust universal definitions.”

Socrates thought that all the virtues were interlinked. They couldn’t be separated. He thought them as one thing, something he called knowledge of the human good.
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