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[探索发现] 2016-07-29 BBC:古代圣贤:苏格拉底 Socrates-11

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The destiny of all Greeks was in the hands of Gods. They were venerated even though their personal lives were pretty short on the moral guidance. They were capricious and vengeful. They fought with each other. They slept with one and each other’s wives. They abducted mortals. And appropriately, the gods didn’t seem that interested in human reality either.
Living a good life didn’t guarantee favor with the gods. Respecting their power and offering them most expensive and bloody sacrifice was a much safer bet.
Greeks did however believe there were five virtues, justice, temperance, courage, piety and wisdom. But in practice, these virtues were slippery shifting ideals. What was considered just or pious for an aristocratic man wasn’t necessarily the same for a slave woman.
In Socrates’s experience, traditional moral thinking, the kind told by elders and priests and epic poets just didn’t understand the scrutiny. His philosophy became a search for more robust and universal definition.
Socrates thought that all the virtues were inner-linked. They couldn’t be separated. He thought them as one thing, something he called knowledge of the human good.
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