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[探索发现] 2016-08-03 BBC:古代圣贤:苏格拉底 Socrates-12

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[探索发现] 2016-08-03 BBC:古代圣贤:苏格拉底 Socrates-12

 

 

BBC: Genius of the Ancient World  | 《英国广播公司:古代世界的天才》

 

第二集 Socrates 古代圣贤:苏格拉底

 

历史学家贝特妮·休斯(Bettany Hughes)游历印度、希腊、和中国以追寻三位古代世界的哲学巨人——佛祖释迦牟尼、苏格拉底和孔子——的足迹。她首先来到印度;当年,佛祖离开了他的家人和故土,踏上了寻求终结人类苦难的方法的哲学旅程。接着她转道前往希腊,并详细描述了苏格拉底是如何成就了他的名声。最后来到中国探寻孔子,被广泛誉为第一位对重要的社会、政治和伦理问题采取了系统性的哲学处理的中国思想家。


Series in which historian Bettany Hughes investigates three giants of ancient philosophy. In the second episode she is in Greece, on the trail of the hugely influential maverick thinker Socrates, who was executed for his beliefs.


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原文http://www.putclub.com/html/listening/guide/2004/0509/5357.html

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For him, virtue is knowledge, knowledge for human good. He says, this knowledge of human good is going to in some sense save your life. This is really strong language. But is that absract idea? Or there is something that can play out in people’s day to day lives. Honor absoluetly, knowledge of human good is what enable us to make right, practial decisions in our daily lives. But it’s going to look (into) different and different contexts.
For instance, if you are in the battlefield that maifest itself as a corage, if you sacrifice in a temple, and it will look like piety. And through those decisions and actions that we are able to take care of our souls, our most precious position,on which all our happiness depends.
But that means people have real agency. Because it seems to be that he is saying it’s not down to gods to make world a better place. It’s down to us. Absolutely, Socrates is saying you don’t have to depend on the whims and caprices of gods. It’s really about indivudal enpowerment and responsibility.
And further more, whereas he is in inherited tradition which said there’s one kind of virtue for a man and another for a woman, one for, you know, for a well born person and another for a slave.
He says, no, it’s about knowledge of human good, an universal sense. It’s available to every body. Souces related to sucessors of him, he brings philosophy down from heavens and into the people’homes, and into people’s indudal homes.
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-For him, virtue is knowledge, knowledge of human good. He says this knowledge of human good is going to in some sense save your life. This is really strong language.
-Is that an abstract idea? Or is there something that can plan people's day-to-day lives?
-Oh, no, absolutely. Knowledge of human good is what enables us to make the right, practical decisions in our daily lives, but it's going to look different in different contexts. For instance, if you are in a battlefield, it will manifested itself as courage. If you are sacrificing in a temple, it will look like piety. And it's through those decisions and actions, we are able toa take care of our souls, our most precious possession, on which all our happiness depends.
-But that means that people have real agency, because it seems to be he's saying it's not down to gods to make the world better place. It's down to us.
-Absolutely, Socrates's saying you don't have to depend on the whims and caprices of the gods. It's really about individual enpowerment and responsibility. And furthermore, whereas he inherited tradtion, which said there was one kind of virtue for a man and another for woman; one for, you know, well-born person and another for a slave. He said, "No, it's about knowledge of human good and a universal sense. It's available to everybody." Source relate to ** of him, he brings philosophies down from the heavens and into people's homes and into people's individual homes.
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“For him, virtue is knowledge, knowledge of the human good. He says that this knowledge of the human good is going to in some sense save your life. This is really strong language.”

“But is that abstract idea or is it something that can play out in people’s day-to-day lives?”

“Oh, no, absolutely. Knowledge of the human good is what enables us to make the right practical decisions in our daily lives, but it’s going to look different and different contexts. For instance, if you are in a battlefield, it will manifest itself as courage. If you are sacrificing in a temple, it will look like piety. And it’s through those decisions and actions that we are able to take care of our souls, our most precious possession, on which all our happiness depends.”

“But that means people have real agency because it seems to be that he is saying it’s not down to gods to make the world a better place. It’s down to us.”

“Absolutely. Socrates is saying you don’t have to depend on the whims and caprices of the gods. It’s really about individual empowerment and responsibility. And furthermore, whereas he’s inherited tradition which said that there’s one kind of virtue for man and another for a woman, one for, you know, a well-born person and another for a slave. He is saying no. It’s about knowledge of the human good in a universal sense. It’s available to everybody. Cicero(西塞罗) relate(?) says of him: He brings philosophy down from the heavens and into people’s homes, into people’s individual homes.”
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For him virtue is knowledge, knowledge of the human good. He says that this knowledge of human good is going to, in some sense, save your life. This is really a strong language.
Is that his abstract ideas, or is that something that come out of people’s day to day lives?
Oh, no, absolutely. Knowledge of human good is to enable us to make the right practical decisions in our daily lives. But it’s going to look different in different contents. For instance, if you are on a battle field, it will manifest yourself in a courage. If you are sacrificing in a temple, It will look like piety. And through those decisions and actions, we are enabled to take care of our souls, a most precious possession on which all our happiness depends.
Does that mean that people have real agency? Because, it seems that he is saying that , it is not the gods that make the world a better place. It is down to us.
Absolutely, Socrates is saying that you don’t have to depend on the whims and caprices of gods. It’s really about individual empowerment and responsibility. And furthermore, whereas he inherited tradition, that is one kind of virtues for man and another for a woman while, one for a well-born man and another for a slave. He says no. He says this is about the knowledge of human good, in a universal sense. It’s available to everybody. Socrates relates to // he brings philosophy down from the heavens and into people’s homes, into people’s individual homes
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