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[Report] SENEWS-2019-08-09

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[Report] SENEWS-2019-08-09

SENEWS-20190809 Report


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[Homework]SENEWS-2019-08-09

A news United Nations scientific report says that human caused climate change is greatly reducing land quality worldwide. It also warns that the way humans use land is causing the earth's atmosphere to warm faster and could harm food production. The intergovernmental panel on climate change published its latest report on Thursday. It examines the relationship between climate change and land use, agriculture and food security. The report notes that the effects of climate change are already making food more costly and less nutritious, and are worsening food shortages. The cycle is accelerating, says NASA climate scientist, x. She was among the writers of the report. The threat of climate change affecting people's food on their dinner table is increasing. The scientists write that if humans change the way they eat, grow food and manage forests, it could help slow world temperature rise. About 30% of the earth's surface is land, but the report says that the land is warming two times faster than the planet as a whole. While heat-trapping gases are causing problems in the atmosphere, land has been less talked about as part of climate change. The way we use land is both part of the problem and also part of the solution, said x. She is a French climate scientist who was on one of the IPCC's working groups. Sustainable land management can help secure a future that is comfortable, she added. The report said climate change has worsened land degradation. It has caused deserts to spread and permafrost to partly melt, and made forests more easily harmed by fire, disease and lack of water. The future could be worse, the report said. Agriculture and forestry together account for about 23% of the heat-trapping gases that are warming the earth. That does not include energy costs, food transportation and packaging. With those activities added, the amount grows to 37%. But scientists also note that land is a good carbon sink. In other words, it can suck heat-trapping gases out of the air. From 2007 to 2016, for example, agriculture and forestry each year put 5.2 billion metric tonnes of carbon dioxide into the air. But the land pulled 11.2 billion metric tonnes out of it. Carbon dioxide is a main heat-trapping gas. But one of the writers of the report, x, noted this additional gift from nature is limited. He warned that the land will be less able to take in emissions in the future. x is a scientist at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture in Colombia. He said that total emissions from land are increasing, especially because of deforestation in places such as Brazil, Colombia and Peru. Scientists have long believed that one of the few good things about higher levels of carbon dioxide is that plants grow well in such conditions, NASA's x said. But many studies show that the high levels of carbon dioxide reduce protein and nutrients in many crops. For example, the study shows that high levels of carbon in the air cause wheat to have 6-13% less protein, 4-7% less zinc, and 8% less iron, x said. The IPCC also warned of more harmful affects to the global food supply as extreme weather becomes more common. It predicts an increase of 7.6% in cereal prices by 2050. Higher food prices, the report said, lead to an increased risk of hunger. The report noted that better, smarter farming methods could reduce carbon levels by up to 18% of current emissions levels by 2050. The report also suggested ways that carbon emissions could be reduced further. This could be done if humans reduce the amount of red meat they eat, and instead eat more plant-based foods, like fruits, vegetables and seeds. That would make people healthier, x said. More plant-based diets would also free up several millions square kilometers of land by 2050. There are certain kinds of diets that have a lower level of carbon footprint and put less pressure on land, said x, a professor at London's Imperial College. He spoke with Reuters reporters Thursday. The report said that reducing food waste is an important part of fighting climate change. The report noted that almost one third of food produced is lost or wasted. The causes of food loss and waste differ greatly between developed and developing countries. Between 2010 and 2016, worldwide food waste accounted for 8-10% of heat-trapping emissions. Reducing food waste would reduce emissions and improve food security, the report said. However, the report urged that the window for making these changes is closing fast. Stanford University's environmental sciences chief, x, was not involved in the IPCC's report. But he told the Associated Press that the report's main message is that humans must recognize that we have profound limits on the amount of land available. He added: We have to be careful about how we utilize it.

I'm x. And I'm x.


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