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[科学美国人60秒] SSS 2020-02-13

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[科学美国人60秒] SSS 2020-02-13

SSS 20200213

sss
60秒科学节目(SSS)是科学美国人网站的一套广播栏目,英文名称:Scientific American - 60 Second Science,节目内容以科学报道为主,节目仅一分钟的时间,主要对当今的科学技术新发展作以简明、通俗的介绍,对于科学的发展如何影响人们的生活环境、健康状况及科学技术,提供了大量简明易懂的阐释。

Tune in every weekday for quick reports and commentaries on the world of science-- it will just take a minute.


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Around 100,000 years ago, in what is now Italy, our Neanderthal cousins waded out into the shallow coastal waters of the Mediterranean Sea in search of clams. They grabbed the mollusks from the sea floor and perhaps even dive for them in deeper water. And they also simply collected them from the beach. But the creatures weren’t just food. In a recent study, University of # archeologist * team report that the Neanderthals modified the clams’ hard shells into tools for cutting and scribing. The _ implements were found inside the ^, a coastal cave that was first rediscovered around 85 years ago. By examining wear and tear on the shells, the researchers determined that about 75% of the tool source materials had been found dead on the beach. The shells had been worn down from being battered by waves and sand but the remaining shells were smooth and shiny, indicating that the clams were still alive on the sea floor when they were gathered. The shells were also thicker and therefore might have made more durable tool. So even though gathering clams under water took more work than picking them up on the beach, the effort may have been worth it. Also founded in the ^ were _ stone from volcanic eruptions that occurred to the south of the sea. Those stones may have been used by the Neanderthals as a brace of tools. The study is in the journal Plos One. Neanderthals were making these tools for more than 50,000 years before modern humans first arrived in western Europe. But the Neanderthal intelligence was dismissed by the scientific community during much of the 20th century. In recent years, however, evidence of their tool use and even of artistic abilities has grown. Neanderthals hunted, made cave art, cooked with fire, used boats and went fishing. Just last year, for example, research by # and others found that Neanderthals living not far from the ^ site used _ to attach handles to stone tools. They may have gone extinct some 14,000 years ago. But it’s becoming ever more clear that Neanderthals were intelligent, creative people who led fully human lives.
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Around 100,000 years ago, in what is now Italy, our Neanderthal cousins waded out into the shallow coast waters of the Mediterranean Sea in search of clams. They grabbed the mollusks from the sea floor and perhaps even dived for them in deeper water. And they also simply collected them from beach, but the creatures weren't just food.

In a recent study, University of Colorado at Boulder archaeologist Paola Villa and her team reported that the Neanderthals modified the clams' hard shells into tools for cutting and scraping. The cartifacts of implements were found inside the Grotta dei Moscerini, a coastal cave that was first rediscovered around 85 years ago. By a examining wear and tear on the shells, the researchers determined that about 75% of the tool source materials had been found dead on the beach. These shells had been worn down for being battered by waves and sand but the remaining shells were smooth and shiny, indicating the clams were still alive on the sea floor when they were gathered. The shells also thicker and therefore might have more durable tools. So even though no gathering clams under water took for more work than picking them up on beach, the effort may be worth.

Also found in the Grotta dei Moscerini, pumice stones from volcanical erputions that occured to the south of the site. Those stones may have been used by the Neanderthal as a brace of tools. The study is in the journal PLOS ONE.

Neanderthals were making these tools more 50,000 years before modern human first arrived in western Europe. But Neanderthal intelligence was dimissed by the scientific community during much of the 20th century.

In recent years, however, evidence of their tool use and even of artistic abilities has grown. Neanderthal hunted, made a cave, cooked with fire, used boats and went fishing. Just last year, for example, researchers by Villa and others found that Neanderthal living not far from Grotta dei Moscerini site used resident to attach handles to store tools. They may have gone extinct some 40,000 years ago, but it is becoming ever more clear that Neanderthal were intelligent, creative people who led fully human lives.
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