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[豆知识] 【整理】2009-04-26&05-02 美国人如何选总统?

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本帖最后由 waterwong 于 2009-4-26 20:14 编辑

Homework

Every 4 years, Americans who are 18 or older have a big responsibility. Our votes decide who becomes the president of the United States. Unfortunately, the US's election system isn't that simple. This is electing a US president in plain English.

It's easy to imagine every US citizen's vote being accounted together on Election Day. But this is not the case. US elections are not decided by total or popular vote, but individual states. Let me explain.

It starts from your vote. On Election Day, You'll vote for president and their vice president. You'll get one choice. Then, all the votes in your state are counted. The candidate with the most State-wide votes becomes the candidate of your State's supports for president. This happens across the country until each state has elected their candidate. We end up with most of the 50 States in the district of Columbia voting to support one candidate each. But there's a problem. We cannot elect a president by just counting the choices of states. US's states are different. Consider this, California has about 36,000 million people, Kensas has less than 3 million. We need a way for California's choice to have more influence on the election, because the State has more people. The question becomes how do we make sure that each state has the right amount of influence on the election? Well, we need a way to account for the population of each state. As an example, let's consider my home state of North Carolina. Like every state, it is divided in the congressional district that based on population. North Carolina has 13 districs, California has 53, and Kensas has 4. When it comes to  a states' effect on the ellection, the number of districs matters most. More population equals more districs, equals more influence. The infuence a state has in election is measured by the number of electors. This number comes from the number of districs in a state, plus the number of the US senators, which is always 2. North Carolina has 15 electors, while California has 55. When a candidate wins the voting of s state, they win the state's number of electors. That's why big and populous states can be so important to candidates. Their electors add up quickly. And the number of electors is what really matters. Here's why if you add up the electors of all 55 states in the district of Columbia,  there are 538 in total. The candidates go on Election Day is to win the majority of 538, or 270 electors. Once a candidate wins enough states to reach the 270 majority, they have won the election and become the president elect. Yeahh...so, let's recap. Your vote helps your state choose a single candidate, that candidate receives all the electors from  your state. The candidate who can win enough states to reach 270 of total electors wins the national election and becomes the president elect. Then on the following January 20th, the president elect is sworn in as the next president of the United States. And it all starts with your vote. Make it count!
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