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[豆知识] 【整理】2009-04-26&05-02 美国人如何选总统?

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Every four years, Americans who are eighteen or older have a responsibility. Our votes decide who becomes the president of the United States. And fortunately, the US elect system isn’t that simple.  
This is “electing a US president” in plain English.
It’s easy to imagine every US’s vote to being come together. But this is not the case. US elections are not decided by the total or popular vote, but individual states.
Let me explain. It starts from your vote. On Election Day, your vote for president and the advised president. You get one choice. Then, all the votes in your state are accounted. The candidate with the most state wide votes became the candidate your state support for president.
This happens across the country and tells each state have elected their candidate.
We end up with most of the states and except for Columbia voting for just one candidate for each.
But there is a problem. We can’t elect the president by just counting up the choices of these states. The US states are different. Consider this, California has about thirty-six million people, Census has less than three million. We need a way for California’s choice to have more influence for the election because the state has more people.
The question becomes, how do you make sure  each state has a right amount of influence on the election? Well, we need a way to account for the population of each state. As an example, let’s consider my hometown of north *. Like every state, it is divided into different * districts that based on the population. North * has thirteen districts, California has fifty-three and Census has four. When it comes to a state’s influence on the election, the number of districts matters most. More population equals more districts equals more influence.
The influence a state has on election is measured by the numbers of the electors. This number comes from the number of districts in a state, plus the number of the US senators which is always two. North * has fifteen electors while California has fifty-five.
When a candidate wins the voting in a state, they win that state’s number elector. That’s why big popular states can be so important to candidates.
The electors add up quickly and the number of electors is what really matters. Here’s why. If you add the electors all fifty states and Columbia, there are five hundred and thirty-eight in total. The candidates’ goal on election day is to win the majority of five hundred and fifty-eight, or two hundred and seventy electors. Once a candidate wins enough states to reach the two hundred and seventy majority, they have won the election and become the president elect. Yeah!
So, let’s recap. Your vote helps your state choose a single candidate. That candidate receives all electors from your state. The candidate who can win enough states to reach two hundred and seventy total electors wins the national election and becomes the president elect. Then, on the following January 20th, the president elect is * in as the president of the United States. And it all starts with your vote, make it accout.
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