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[豆知识] 【整理】2011-05-29&06-04 “总量管制和交易”的故事 (1/3)

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[Homework]2011-05-29&06-04 “总量管制和交易”的故事 (1/3)

I'm so glad the world is finally getting together to stop climate change. When I first heard that our leaders were meeting to talk about solutions. I breathed a huge sign of relief. Didn't you? Then I said, wait a minute, what exactly are they planing to do about this problem? So I looked into it. I gotta tell you not all the solutions they're working on what I call solutions. In fact, leading solutions known as cap and trade or emissions trading is actually a huge problem. Now, I know, this is the last thing you wanna hear, but the future of our planet is at stake. So we gotta take the time to understand what's going here. OK, meet the guys at the heart of this so-called solution, they include guys from Enron, who designed energy trade and the wall street financiers like G.S who gave us the subprime mortgage crisis. Their job is to develop brand new markets. They stake their claims and then when everyone and their grandmother wants in, they make off with huge amounts of money as the market becomes a giant bubble and bursts. Well, their latest bubble just burst, and now they have a new idea for a market trading carbon pollution. They are about to develop a new three trillion dollar bubble. But when this one bursts, it won't just take down our stock portfolios, it could take down everything. So how does cap and trade work? Well, pretty much all serious scientists agree that we need to reduce the amount of carbon in atmosphere to 350 parts per million, if we want to avoid climate disaster. In the US, that means reducing our machines by 80%, maybe even more by 2050. 80%!  Now the problem is that most of our global economy runs on burning fossil fuels, which releases carbon. The factories that make our stuff, the ships and trucks that carry it around the world. Our cars and buildings and appliances, just about everything. So how are we gonna reduce carbon 80% and not go back to living like little house on the prairie. Well, these cap and trade guys are saying that a new carbon stock market is the best way to get it down. The first step would be getting governments around the world to agree on a yearly limit on carbon emissions. That's cap, I think that part is great. So how do they want to insure that carbon emission stay under the cap. Well, governments will distribute certain amount of permits to pollute. Every year, there will be fewer and fewer permits as we fellow the cap to our goal.
Innovative companies will get on board building clean alternatives and getting more efficient. As permits get scarcer, they will also become available. So naturally, companies who have extra will want to sell them to companies who need them. That's where the trading comes in.
The logic is as long as we stay under the cap, it doesn't matter who pollutes and who innovates. We will meet our climate deadline, avoiding catastrophe. And oh yeah, these guys take their fee as they broker this multi trillion dollar carbon racket, I mean market.
Save the planet, get rich. What's not to like? Some of my friends who really care about our future support cap and trade. A lot of environmental groups said I respect do too. They know it's not a perfect solution and they don't love the idea of turning our planet's future over to these guys, but they think it's an important first step. And it's better than nothing. I'm not so sure and I'm not the only one!

This post was generated by put listening repetition system,  Check the original dictation thread!

[Homework]【整理】2011-05-29&06-04 “总量管制和交易”的故事 (1/3)

A growing movement of scientists, students, farmers and forward thinking business people are all saying wait a minute. In fact, even the economists who invented the cap and trade system to deal with the simpler problems like fertilizer pollution and sulfur dioxide. They say cap and trade will never work for climate change. Here's why I think they're right. When it comes to any kindly financial scam like subprime mortgages or B.M's pyramid scheme. The devil is always in the details, and there're a lot of devils in details of the cap and trade proposals on the table. Devil No.1 is known as free permits. which is why some people call this system cap and give way. In this scheme, industrial polluters will get the vast majority of these valuable permits for free. Free, the more they've been polluting, the more they'll get. It's like we're thanking them for creating this problem in the first place. In Europe, they tried cap and give way system, the prices of permits bounced around like crazy, energy costs jumped for consumers and guess what?  Carbon emissions actually went up. The only part that did work was that the polluters made billions of dollars in extra profits. MIT economists say the same thing would likely happen here in the US. Those billions come from our pockets. A real solution would put that money to work stopping climate change. Instead of just giving permits away to polluters, we could see them and use the money to build a clean energy economy, or give citizens a dividend to help pay for higher fuel prices while we transition to that clean energy economy, or share with those most harmed by climate change, some people call this paying our ecological debt.
Since we are in the richest countries released most carbon for centuries, and lived a pretty comfy lifestyle in the process. Don't we have a responsibility to help those most harmed. It' like we had a big party, didn't invite our neighbors and then suck them with the clean up bill. It's just not cool. Did know that in the next century because of the changing climate, whole island nations could end up underwater, and UN says 9/10 African farmers could lose their ability to grow food. That wouldn't a real solution benefit these people instead of just the polluters.
Devil No.2 is called offsetting. Offset permits are created when a company supposedly removes or reduces carbon. They then get a permit which can be sold to a polluter who wants permission to emit more carbon. In theory, one activity offsets the other. The danger with offsets is it's very hard to guarantee that real carbon is being removed to create the permit. Yet these permits are worth real money. This creates a very dangerous incentive to create false offsets, to cheat. Now in some cases cheating isn't the end of the world, but in this case, it is. And already there's a lot of cheating going on. Like Indonesian,  S.M corporation cut down indigenous forests, causing major ecological and culture destruction. Then they took the wasteland they created and planted palm oil trees, guess what they can get for it. Yep, offset permits. Carbon out? No. Carbon in? You bet.
Companies can even earn offsets for not doing anything at all. Like operators of a polluting factory can claim there were planing to expand 200%, but reduce the plans to expand only 100%. For that meaning as claim, they get offset permits, permits that they can sell to someone else to make more pollution. That's so stupid. The list of scams go on and on, and many of the worst ones happen in the so-called third world where big business does whatever it wants, to whomever it wants. And with lax standards and regulations on the offsets that they can get permits for just about anything.   


This post was generated by put listening repetition system,  Check the original dictation thread!
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