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[探索发现] 2016-06-22 BBC:古代圣贤:苏格拉底 Socrates-5

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We refer to them now as one group, the pre-Socrates, but in reality, they were brilliant, independent thinkers. They asked hugely ambitious scientific questions. What is the cosmos made of? What is matter and how do we perceive it? Their answers, in some cases, undermined the role of gods as rulers of the cosmos. Their abstract theories, obviously conceived without the help of scientific instruments. That universe was made of atoms and empty space, that water was the fundamental element of the world, and that the sun was one giant red hot rock were wildly provocative. The scale and audacity of their thinking was breathtaking.
The pre-Socrates not only struck at the core of traditionally belief, but their use of reason opened up a new way to look at the entirety of human experience, an approach eagerly taken up by the young Socrates.
Suddenly, it’s not just tradition or myth or religious hierarchies that are telling you how to make sense of your world, but rational debate, systematic thought. Just like those other groundbreaking philosophers of the age, Confucius in China and the Buddha in what’s now India, Socrates and his contemporaries are daring to harness the power of the mind to explain the world around them. This is a quantum shift.
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